Java Server Pages

What are java server pages :

JavaServer Pages (JSP) is a server side Java technology that allows software developers to create dynamically generated web pages, with HTML, XML, or other document types, in response to a Web client request to a Java Web Application container (server). To allow this an HTML page is given the file extension jsp and an XML markup page is given the file extension jspx for the Java server (container) to recognise the file requires JSP processing before sending it to the client. JSP pages are loaded in the server and operated from a structured special installed Java server packet called a J2EE Web Application often packaged as a .war or .ear file archive.

The technology allows Java code and certain pre-defined actions to be embedded into static page content and compiled on the server at runtime of each page request. Both the Java Server (J2EE specification) and the page scripts and/or extended customised programming added operate by(in the runtime context of being loaded programs used) a special pre-installed base program called a Virtual Machine that integrates with the host Operating System, this type being the Java Virtual Machine(JVM).

Because either, both a Compiler-JVM set(called an SDK or JDK) or the lone JVM(called a (JRE) Java Runtime Environment) is made for most computer platform OSs and the compiled programs for the JVM are compiled into special Java Byte code files for the JVM the Byte-code files(compiled Java program .class files) can be effectively transferred between platforms with no requirement to be recompiled excepting versioning compatibility, or special circumstance. The source code for these J2EE servlet or J2EE JSP programs is almost always supplied with J2EE JSP material and J2EE Web Applications because the server must call the compiler when loading them . These small extension programs (custom tags,servlets,beans,page scripting) are variable and likely to be updated or changed either shortly before runtime or intermittently but particularly when sending JSP page requests themselves, it requires the JSP server to have access to a Java compiler(SDK or JDK) and the required source code (not simply the JVM JRE and byte code class files) to successfully exploit the method of serving.

JSP syntax has two basic forms, scriptlet and markup though fundamentally the page is either HTML or XML markup. Scriptlet tagging(called Scriptlet Elements) (delimited) blocks of code with the markup are not effectively markup and allows any java server relevant API(e.g. the servers running binaries themselves or datatbase connections API or java mail API) or more specialist JSP API language code to be embedded in an HTML or XML page provided the correct declarations in the JSP file and file extension of the page are used. Scriptlet blocks do not require to be completed in the block itself only the last line of the block itself being completed syntactically correctly as a statement is required, it can be completed in a later block . This system of split inline coding sections is called step over scripting because it can wrap around the static markup by stepping over it . At runtime(during a client request) the code is compiled and evaluated, but compilation of the code generally only occurs when a change to the code of the file occurs. The JSP syntax adds additional XML-like tags, called JSP actions, to be used to invoke built-in functionality. Additionally, the technology allows for the creation of JSP tag libraries that act as extensions to the standard HTML or XML tags.

JSPs are compiled into servlets by a JSP compiler. The compiler either generates a servlet in Java code that is then compiled by the Java compiler, or it may compile the servlet to byte code which is directly executable. JSPs can also be interpreted on-the-fly, reducing the time taken to reload changes.

Regardless of whether the JSP compiler generates Java source code for a servlet or emits the byte code directly, it is helpful to understand how the JSP compiler transforms the page into a Java servlet. For example, consider the following input JSP and its resulting generated Java Servlet.

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